Bury remarks, the Peloponnesians would have considered it the "Attic War".. In fact, 3,000 such men were chosen by the Thirty to share in the government of Athens. After boasting that he could put an end to the affair in the Assembly, the inexperienced Cleon won a great victory at the Battle of Sphacteria. New Questions. These ships were then released, and served as the core of the Athenians' fleet throughout the rest of the war. Rising to particular importance in Athenian democracy at this time was Cleon, a leader of the hawkish elements of the Athenian democracy. Thucydides explains the next contributing factors for the cause of the Peloponnesian War was the dispute over the Corcyraeans. The result of the Peloponnesian War was that it ended in victory for Sparta and its allies, and led directly to the rising naval power of Sparta. The Peloponnesian War Paul Waring November 16, 2015 Introduction In 431 BC,1 a conﬂict erupted in Greece which would become known as the Peloponnesian War. Many of the citizens of Attica abandoned their farms and moved inside the Long Walls, which connected Athens to its port of Piraeus. Nothing was the same after the war, and Athens was never to be as powerful. They only managed a respite from the violence with the ‘Thirty Years Peace’ treaty in the winter of 446/5 BC. Lysander, the Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet at Aegospotami in 405 BCE, helped to organize the Thirty Tyrants as a government for the 13 months they maintained power. Alcibiades, while condemned as a traitor, still carried weight in Athens. Which option accurately describes the role of trade during the Age of Discovery? Sparta’s international political influence precipitated quickly after their defeat. The people of Syracuse were ethnically Dorian (as were the Spartans), while the Athenians, and their ally in Sicilia, were Ionian. Despite all this, not all Athenian men had their rights removed. , "Athenian War" redirects here. Most of the ruling systems set up by Lysander were ten-man oligarchies, called decarchies, in which harmosts, Spartan military governors, were the heads of the government. Nonetheless, the Thirty’s regime was not met with much overt opposition for the majority of their rule, as a result of the harsh penalties placed on dissenters. The rebels quickly secured the support of a Persian satrap, and Athens found itself facing the prospect of revolts throughout the empire. The destruction of Athens's fleet in the Battle of Aegospotami effectively ended the war, and Athens surrendered in the following year. The Persians were slow to furnish promised funds and ships, frustrating battle plans. Results. The Athenians felt obliged to assist their ally. by A.H. Clough. However, rarely did the two sides fight each other alone. Emboldened, the Argives and their allies, with the support of a small Athenian force under Alcibiades, moved to seize the city of Tegea, near Sparta. Facing starvation and disease from the prolonged siege, Athens surrendered in 404 BC, and its allies soon surrendered as well. By the middle of the century, the Persians had been driven from the Aegean and forced to cede control of a vast range of territories to Athens. Between 410 and 406, Athens won a continuous string of victories, and eventually recovered large portions of its empire. Tags: Question 8 . in. After the death of Pericles, the Athenians turned somewhat against his conservative, defensive strategy and to the more aggressive strategy of bringing the war to Sparta and its allies. The main outcome was. After suffering a defeat at the hands of their colony of Corcyra, a sea power that was not allied to either Sparta or Athens, Corinth began to build an allied naval force. Athens' aggressive policies did not help the situation- the city-state's ambitions certainly provoked the Spartans. The History explains that the primary cause of the Peloponnesian War was the "growth in power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Sparta" (1.23.6). However, the Athenian warships participated in the battle nevertheless, and the arrival of additional Athenian triremes was enough to dissuade the Corinthians from exploiting their victory, thus sparing much of the routed Corcyrean and Athenian fleet.. The Peloponnesian War was not fought by individual Greek states but by two great coalitions, the Peloponnesian League and the Athenian Empire. Eventually, the level of violence and brutality carried out by the Thirty in Athens led to increased opposition, stemming primarily from a rebel group of exiles led by Thrasybulus, a former trierarch in the Athenian navy. The Athenians crushed the revolt, and peace was maintained. Athens maintained its empire through naval power. A form of power structure in which a small group of people hold all power and influence in a state. That treaty, however, was soon undermined by renewed fighting in the Peloponnese. As the preeminent Athenian historian, Thucydides, wrote in his influential History of the Peloponnesian War, "The growth of the power of Athens, and the alarm which this inspired in Lacedaemon, made war inevitable." In the battle, the allied coalition scored early successes, but failed to capitalize on them, which allowed the Spartan elite forces to defeat the forces opposite them. It was alleged that the Megarians had desecrated the Hiera Orgas. Athenian manpower was correspondingly drastically reduced and even foreign mercenaries refused to hire themselves out to a city riddled with plague. Perhaps worst of all, the nearby silver mines were totally disrupted, with as many as 20,000 Athenian slaves freed by the Spartan hoplites at Decelea. The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. What happened in Athens that led to its weakening and eventual downfall in the first Peloponnesian War? Conflict between the states flared up again in 465 BC, when a helot revolt broke out in Sparta. The Athenians managed to survive for several reasons. The Peloponnesian War ended in victory for Sparta and its allies, but signaled the demise of Athenian naval and political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean. The plague ravaged the densely packed city, and in the long run, was a significant cause of its final defeat. The fortification of Decelea prevented the shipment of supplies overland to Athens, and forced all supplies to be brought in by sea at increased expense. Explorers such as Ferdinand Magellan sought to trade for . Thus, Cyrus put all his means at the disposal of Lysander in the Peloponnesian War. The plague wiped out over 30,000 citizens, sailors and soldiers, including Pericles and his sons.  The Athenians, in response, reminded the Spartans of their record of military success and opposition to Persia, and warned them of the dangers of confronting such a powerful state, ultimately encouraging Sparta to seek arbitration as provided by the Thirty Years' Peace. A. Persian domination over Greece B. After the battle of Aegospotami, Sparta took over the Athenian empire and kept all of its tribute revenues for itself; Sparta's allies, who had made greater sacrifices for the war effort than had Sparta, got nothing.. Athens and Sparta had fought each other before the outbreak of the Great Peloponnesian War (in what is sometimes called the First Peloponnesian War) but had agreed to a truce, called the Thirty Years’ Treaty, in 445. Which of the following was an effect of the Peloponnesian War? In 403 BC, the oligarchs were overthrown and a democracy was restored by Thrasybulus. The post off Pylos struck Sparta where it was weakest: its dependence on the helots, who tended the fields while its citizens trained to become soldiers. During his kingship, Agesilaus embarked on a number of military campaigns in the eastern Aegean and Persian territories. Led militarily by a clever new general Demosthenes (not to be confused with the later Athenian orator Demosthenes), the Athenians managed some successes as they continued their naval raids on the Peloponnese.  The war was officially ended by the Thirty Years' Peace, signed in the winter of 446/5 BC. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. Corinth and Thebes demanded that Athens should be destroyed and all its citizens should be enslaved. With the death of Cleon and Brasidas, zealous war hawks for both nations, the Peace of Nicias was able to last for some six years. The democratic alliance was broken up, and most of its members were reincorporated into the Peloponnesian League. Ask your question . The helots made the Spartan system possible, but now the post off Pylos began attracting helot runaways. Corinth and Syracuse were slow to bring their fleets into the Aegean, and Sparta's other allies were also slow to furnish troops or ships. Fearing that he would be unjustly condemned, Alcibiades defected to Sparta and Nicias was placed in charge of the mission.  There, Cyrus allied with the Spartan general Lysander. Alcibiades was not re-elected general by the Athenians and he exiled himself from the city. The Peloponnesian war had lasting, traumatic effects for Greek society, breaking any chance of a unified Greek state that could stand together against invaders, which ultimately left the door open for Macedonian control. See more. The outcome of the Peloponnesian War had far reaching consequences for all concerned, some of which were positive for the victors and others which reduced the losers to mere failed states. The Spartans summoned forces from all of their allies, including Athens, to help them suppress the revolt. In order to uphold the Thirty Years' Peace, however, the Athenians were instructed not to intervene in the battle unless it was clear that Corinth was going to press onward to invade Corcyra. The war also had further reaching … First, their foes were lacking in initiative. How did they finally win? Explorers such as Vasco da Gama sought to trade for gold and iron from the Ghana Empire. The Lacedaemonians were not content with simply sending aid to Sicily; they also resolved to take the war to the Athenians. The Corinthians, the Spartans, and others in the Peloponnesian League sent more reinforcements to Syracuse, in the hopes of driving off the Athenians; but instead of withdrawing, the Athenians sent another hundred ships and another 5,000 troops to Sicily. Revolt and faction threatened in Athens itself. The fighting took over the entire Greek world and it was judge by Thucydides, this was the war was considered to be among the world’s finest work of history and the most significant was up to that time. The Peloponnesian War reshaped the Ancient Greek world. At the Battle of Sybota, a small contingent of Athenian ships played a critical role in preventing a Corinthian fleet from capturing Corcyra. The faction hostile to Alcibiades triumphed in Athens following a minor Spartan victory by their skillful general Lysander at the naval battle of Notium in 406 BC. " Indeed, the nearly fifty years of Greek history that preceded the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War had been marked by the development of Athens as a major power in the Mediterranean world. This tribute was used to support a powerful fleet and, after the middle of the century, to fund massive public works programs in Athens, causing resentment. Despite their victory, these failures caused outrage in Athens and led to a controversial trial. Alarmed, Corcyra sought an alliance with Athens, which after debate and input from both Corcyra and Corinth, decided to swear a defensive alliance with Corcyra. High School. The Peloponnesian War is firstly a historical account of what happened in the war between the Peloponnesian League and the Delian League. Through cunning strategy, Lysander totally defeated the Athenian fleet, in 405 BC, at the Battle of Aegospotami, destroying 168 ships and capturing some three or four thousand Athenian sailors. After the end of the Peloponnesian War, Lysander established many pro-Spartan governments throughout the Aegean. A 16th century engraving of Lysander. The Corcyra never joined the Athenian League or the Spartans, w… The Peloponnesian War was fought between 431 and 404 bce. The longest Spartan invasion, in 430 BC, lasted just forty days. This war shifted power from Athens to Sparta, making Sparta the most powerful city-state in the region. See answers (2) Ask for details ; Follow Report What do you need to know? The Spartan fleet under Callicratidas lost 70 ships and the Athenians lost 25 ships. The Syracusans sent their fleet to the Peloponnesians, and the Persians decided to support the Spartans with money and ships. The historical account was written whilst the conflict was ongoing (431–404 BC).Secondly the history written by Thucydides is one of the first works of realist theory in international relations. The Lacedaemonians, with their neighbors the Tegeans, faced the combined armies of Argos, Athens, Mantinea, and Arcadia. Early Spartan attempts to break up the coalition failed, and the leadership of the Spartan king Agis was called into question. https://www.boundless.com/world-history/textbooks/boundless-world-history-textbook/, Understand the effects of the Peloponnesian War on the Greek city-states. The hostages gave the Athenians a bargaining chip. Which of the following did the Spartans NOT force Athens to do? Athens proceeded to bring under its control all of Greece except for Sparta and its allies, ushering in a period which is known to history as the Athenian Empire. The Spartans and Athenians agreed to exchange the hostages for the towns captured by Brasidas, and signed a truce. When Cyrus was recalled to Susa by his dying father Darius, he gave Lysander the revenues from all of his cities of Asia Minor. ", LibriVox: The History of the Peloponnesian War, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Peloponnesian_War&oldid=996620383, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 18:25. The Spartans built a navy with Persian money and defeated the Athenian navy. A plague struck Athens killing 1/3 of its citizens. This hegemonic period was to be short-lived, however. Although the term "Peloponnesian War" was never used by Thucydides, one of the conflict's most important historians, the fact that the term is all but universally used today is a reflection of the Athens-centric sympathies of modern historians. In and around the Peloponnese naval and political hegemony throughout the Mediterranean Greece before the are... 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